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Financial Inclusion
David Tuesta
Lead Economist
This unit, led by David Tuesta, is responsible for analysing the economic, financial, regulatory and digital aspects that interact with different degrees of penetration of the financial system in different parts of the world. Its analyses are carried out from both micro- and macro-economic perspectives, covering both people not currently taking part at all in the financial system and those who do take part in it but with much room for improvement in the way they interact with it. This interest is based on evidence that a greater degree of financial inclusion has a favourable effect on improving economic conditions of businesses, private individuals and countries as a whole. As well as regularly publishing working papers and Economic Watches, the unit also makes available the documentation used in the conferences in which it is invited to make presentations.

Latest Publications

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Infographic. The importance of ICT in developing countries

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The aim of the document is to point out the importance of ICT in developing and emerging countries from a demand-side perspective. We find that having a cell phone and internet access are gaining importance among individuals’ basic needs. Younger people consider ICT-related needs more basic than older people do.

Available in Spanish, English

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The importance of ICT in society’s needs: An empirical approach through Maslow’s lens

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The aim of the Watch is to point out the importance of ICT in developing and emerging countries from a demand-side perspective. We find that having a cell phone and internet access are gaining importance among individuals’ basic needs. Younger people consider ICT-related needs more basic than older people do.

Available in Spanish, English

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The labyrinth of the informal economy: measurement strategies and impacts

Document Number 17/18

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One of the factors of the greatest upheaval to a country’s economic prospects is the substantial presence of the informal economy. The aim of this paper is to articulate a detailed statistical approach to identify the significance of such factors by examining key econometric strategies and availing ourselves of several different samples for over 160 countries.

Available in Spanish, English

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Financial Education, Financial Inclusion and National Strategies

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Mapping financial education, financial inclusion and national strategies. The Multidimensional Index of Financial Inclusion. Measuring the interaction of financial literacy, national strategies and financial inclusion.

Available in English

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Infographic. The use of ICT in European households

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The use of ICT at home has spread extensively throughout Europe, albeit with differing intensity in each country.

Geographies:Europe

Available in Spanish, English

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The use of ICT in European households: a comparative study

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The use of ICT at home has spread extensively throughout Europe, albeit with differing intensity in each country. Based on Eurostat data, this observatory outlines the importance of computer use, of the internet and its ends during the recent recession, comparing European countries.

Geographies:Europe

Available in Spanish, English

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An Index of Regulatory Practices for Financial Inclusion in Latin America

Document Number 17/15

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The index assesses and compares the quality of regulations that influence financial inclusion in 8 Latin American countries. It defines three categories of regulatory practices: the enablers, which determine the overall quality of the financial environment; the promoters, which deal with specific market frictions; and the preventers which create distortions and barriers.

Available in Spanish, English

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Adoption of online banking, a reality in Spain

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Do you access your bank online? If so, you are among the fifteen million users of online banking in Spain, six million more than in 2010.

Available in Spanish, English

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Experience of Student in Money Matters: PISA perspective

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According to the results obtained from PISA Financial Literacy, students usually talk weekly or monthly about money matters, and the deal is greater with adult relatives than with their friends. Even so, there are differences among countries, both in frequency and conversational partner.

Available in Spanish

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Financial Inclusion in Paraguay. March 2017

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An inclusive financial system maximizes usage and access, while minimizing the barriers for financial inclusion (as a proxy of quality). The Multidimensional Index for Financial Inclusion (MIFI) computes the degree of inclusiveness of a financial system across economies and over time

Available in Spanish, English

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Digital Context: Paraguay

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Paraguay has room for improving in terms of the Digitization Index, particularly on affordability and content dimensions. Paraguay almost duplicates Internet use between 2011 and 2014, but it is still lower than other Latin American countries

Available in Spanish, English

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DiGiX: The Digitization Index

Document Number 17/03

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The Digitization Index (DiGiX) assesses the factors, agents’ behavior and institutions that enable a country to fully leverage Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for increased competitiveness and well-being. It is a composite index that summarizes relevant indicators on 100 countries’ digital performance.

Available in English

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Financial Inclusion in Uruguay

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An overall view. Uruguay step by step. Regulation for financial inclusion.

Available in Spanish, English

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Financial Inclusion in Argentina

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An overall view. Argentina step by step. Regulation for financial inclusion.

Available in Spanish, English

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Electronic money: Secure access to the financial system?

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In 2014, just 54% of the adults in developed economies had a banking account, according to the World Bank. And that percentage is even smaller in some regions, as low as 14% in the Middle East.

Available in Spanish, English