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The principle of “same activity, same risk, same regulation” is key to achieve a level playing field for all providers of financial services. This Economic Watch analyses this principle, with a focus on the “same risk” element, and explores proposals on how to put it into practice.

The COVID-19 crisis has brought to light the structural weaknesses of the Spanish labor market. Its lack of efficiency and its duality are some of the main causes of inequality and the lower welfare in Spain compared to other more advanced economies.

The digital transformation of financial services has opened up the market to new providers: FinTech start-ups and BigTechs. In this article, we explain how policymakers’ mindset should evolve towards a comprehensive response to ensure the fi…

Information is any kind of data-based inference. Conditional to context, information-sharing within markets can either improve or reduce welfare, and it can either foster or subdue competition. These effects will depend on both the nature of th…

Conditional to context, information-sharing within markets can be welfare improver or welfare reducer, while can also show pro-competitive or anti-competitive features. Overall, expected effects in efficiency and competition will depend on the …

Digital transformation has opened the financial services market to new kinds of providers with great disruptive potential, including big technology companies. This article explores how the scope of that integration is conditioned by regulation, data access rules and competition policy.

Digital transformation has opened the financial services market to new kinds of providers with great disruptive potential, including big technology companies. This article explores how the scope of that integration is conditioned by regulation, data access rules and competition policy.