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To avoid a ‘demographic winter’ scenario, Spain needs immigration. But just because it is necessary does not mean that it is sufficient, nor that it does not pose major challenges for the labor market and when it comes to social cohesion.

Keeping up with the twin digital and green transition while coping with an aging population and the retirement of the baby boomer generation calls for the astute and successful management of migratory flows, which will drive employment from 2021.

A comparison of Mexico's GHG emissions with the world is presented, highlighting that the country has increased its emission intensity per unit of GDP since 2019, possibly due to its current energy policy. The influence of the population factor…

This Working Paper analyzes the changes in the definitive financing of the autonomous communities under the common system from 2002 to 2021.

The demographic challenges facing developed countries are well known: rapid aging and populations that in are already beginning to shrink in some regions. Less well known, however, is that the demographic transition is already changing the land…

According to our analysis, global demographic trends and, more specifically, the ongoing process of population aging are contributing to current inflationary pressures.

This Working Paper contains homogenized series of regional funding in Spain, constructed on the basis of homogeneous competences at equal fiscal effort from 2002 to 2020.

This paper analyzes how Argentina's productive sectors have been affected by the COVID-19 crisis and how they will evolve towards 2030 in the face of the long-term challenges set at the local and global levels.

The growth trend in the real estate market continues. After the correction, between 2008 and 2014, the sector has not stopped growing in the last few years. This advance was only interrupted in 2020— the toughest stage in the COVID-19 pandemic—…

Since 1996, the number of homes in Spain has increased, as well as their size. This Observatory studies the contribution of different socio-demographic factors such as average household size, population growth and the number of dwellings per ho…

This Working Paper establishes homogenized series of regional financing, based on homogeneous competencies and fiscal effort, between 2002 and 2018.

A wave of protests has shaken Latin America in recent months. The increase in social unrest has led to mass protests in countries such as Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia. There are also worries that this could spread to other parts of the region.