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To avoid a ‘demographic winter’ scenario, Spain needs immigration. But just because it is necessary does not mean that it is sufficient, nor that it does not pose major challenges for the labor market and when it comes to social cohesion.

The increasing longevity of the Spanish population, together with the progressive delay in entering the labor market, poses a challenge for the welfare state, but also an opportunity for society.

The public pension system is a basic pillar of the welfare state in Europe. They are viable and sustainable as long as they adapt to the continuous economic, social, and demographic changes that societies experience. The challenge is to find th…

The per capita income and welfare gaps between Spain and the most advanced European economies—20 percentage points on average in the last four decades—can be explained by Spain's underuse and misuse of human capital, the greatest source of weal…

The Spain 2050 strategy establishes a broad and useful set of objectives on which social consensus and state pacts can be built, as well as measures to achieve them.

The pay-as-you-go (PAYG) pension system is one of the pillars of the welfare state. In order to keep people's income in retirement at similar levels to when they were working, advanced societies have developed complementary pension systems, but these are not particularly widespread in Spain.

Confinement measures and temporary restrictions on activity due to COVID-19 have sent Andalusia and Spain into a deep recession. Not only will the recovery require new public support measures, it will require commitment to reforms to increase their impact. The vulnerabilities of the Spanish economy must be addressed.

Is society destined for mass technological unemployment as a result of robotization and artificial intelligence? Will inequality grow as a result of new technologies? Are universal basic income and robot tax the new frontier of welfare?

In addition to facing global challenges, the Spanish economy must face a broad set of reforms and policies to successfully overcome its challenges in the long term, make the most of the opportunities opened up by the digital revolution, increas…

The public pension system is a fundamental pillar of the welfare state. And for it to continue being so, it is necessary to modernise it and adapt it to the changes being undergone by Spanish society. Fortunately more and more people are reachi…

El sistema público de pensiones es un pilar básico del Estado de bienestar. El sistema de pensiones en España es perfectamente viable y sostenible, siempre que se adapte a los continuos cambios económicos, sociales y demográficos que experimenta la sociedad española. El reto es encontrar un doble equilibrio ante cambios con…

El agotamiento del Fondo de Reserva de la Seguridad Social, previsiblemente en 2017, ha vuelto a plantear la necesidad de adoptar nuevas medidas para reducir el déficit existente, fortalecer su sostenibilidad y asegurar la suficiencia de las pensiones futuras, un pilar fundamental del Estado de bienestar que hay que preserv…