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At the Forum "Colombia's Social challenges" a summarised version of the report "How is the social situation of Colombians?” which analyses variables related to the social situation, characterises the main poverty figures and concludes with the determinants for improving social well-being.

Over the last two years we have witnessed numerous changes to the pension system in Spain, making it more generous, but less self-sufficient, with a larger structural deficit, no adjustment for increased life expectancy and greater dependence on transfers from the State.

A description of the social situation of Colombians, not only with figures on poverty and income, gender gaps, labor market, among others, but also identifying its determinants, their performance and some policy proposals to achieve a better so…

For years now, the structural problems of the Spanish economy have been clearly identified. They are challenges that Spain must overcome in order to converge with the most advanced societies through a holistic approach and coordinated actions t…

In a context of high uncertainty due to the war in Ukraine, the energy shock and higher and more persistent inflation than expected over the last year, forecasts for Spain point to an economic slowdown in 2023, with GDP growth at 1.2%.

The main developments this year are the 8.5% revaluation of pensions in accordance with average monthly inflation from November 2021 to 2022 and the 15% increase in non-contributory pensions.

The public pension system is a basic pillar of the welfare state in Europe. They are viable and sustainable as long as they adapt to the continuous economic, social, and demographic changes that societies experience. The challenge is to find the appropriate balance in the face of continuous changes in the system.

The national budget includes the planned revaluation of pensions in line with the CPI and the agreed increase in the wages of public sector employees. The implications of these two measures go beyond their impact on public sector expenditure, a…

The announcement of Spain’s government budget for 2023 has once again brought the subject of pensions back into the limelight, as this particular budget item has seen the largest increase and will require a record level of transfers from the St…

Longer working lives improve the sustainability of the welfare state and the public pension system, have positive externalities on the employment and productivity of young workers, and enhance cognitive functioning.

This article addresses a number of recent, ongoing changes to the pension system in Spain, notably the revaluation of pensions based on the CPI, the introduction of the Intergenerational Equity Mechanism, and occupational and individual pension plans. We also discuss the key challenges that lie ahead.

Once the last reform decision did not restrict the increase in spending and did not eliminate the actuarial imbalance, the sustainability of the pension system will involve a constant increase in taxation and transfers from central government, increasing the burden on the younger generations.