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Following several years of relative calm, global debt has been steadily growing since the 2008 financial crisis. Aside from the question of public debt, corporate debt grew sharply from 73% of GDP in 2008 to peak at 102% in 2020, at the height of the pandemic.

Investment has yet to return to pre-COVID-19 levels, unlike other GDP components. Whereas real GDP in the third quarter of 2023 was 2.1 p.p. above its pre-crisis level, investment was 2.9 p.p. below.

Although energy and borrowing costs may be falling, businesses will have other challenges to contend with in 2024, including the risk of changes in labor regulation and taxation.

Retaking the path of convergence toward the most advanced economies will require a great deal of success in the investment of the European NGEU funds and in the reforms, and also time, with results that will be measurable in the medium and long…

The labor market reform approved at the end of 2021 has had clear effects. Increased restrictions on the use of temporary contracts and greater flexibility in the use of permanent contracts, especially those for permanent seasonal employees, ha…

This year had started off very well for banks. In fact, the share price of banks in the eurozone had risen by 20% by Wednesday, March 8; however, in one week these gains have been wiped out. The failure of three banks in the US and the sale of Credit Suisse to UBS have caused turbulence in the global banking system.

Economic progress and welfare depend in the long run on innovation, productivity, and employment. The digital revolution and the energy transition are an opportunity for Spanish society, but also a considerable challenge.

The financial system remains strong in Uruguay. Financial intermediation, the core business of the banking sector, is expanding without losing quality. The current situation provides a good starting point to face the pending challenges.

The lack of workers who can meet the demand for employment in Spain is one of the issues that seems to have the most sharp edges. In the short term, the consequences of the increase in unfilled vacancies may be significant for wages, inflation …

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has positioned itself as a key element for development. That is why the NGEU has endowed Spain with 500 million euros. This study characterizes the use of AI in Spanish companies, analyzing the involvement of their …

Private debt among Spanish companies and households, according to the Bank of Spain’s Financial Accounts for the Spanish Economy, currently stands at 135% of GDP, in line with the eurozone (137%). While both economies now find themselves at a similar juncture, they have followed very different paths.

The reform of the Foreigners' Regulation may be a step forward in allowing companies to access human capital, easing the restrictions imposed on the Spanish economy by the expected drop in population and the mismatch between demand and supply in some parts of the labor market.