Digital money has been around for some time: the deposits we hold in banks, and in turn the reserves banks hold in central banks, consist of money that for decades has been registered and operated digitally. However, some concern has now arisen about the so-called "digital currencies".
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In March, total card consumption grew 86.3% YoY, this is explained by a low comparison base (in the second half of March 2020, mobility restrictions began due to the beginning of the pandemic).
The COVID-19 impact on consumption was much more intense during the first wave than in the rest of the year 2020. By sector of activity, the impact of Covid-19 has been heterogeneus too. Food and health was the most beneffited ones and tourism …
We estimate that retail sales' growth rate in 2020 will be similar to that of this year. Looking forward, factors such as the demographic boon, higher household purchasing power and the continued growth of online shopping, suggest that retail s…
An analysis of use and access of the tools for the digital era in Colombian companies, such as: electronic devices, Internet, electronic commerce, large volumes of information, among others. We analize variables that define the adoption and pen…
December 27, 2018
Patterns of domestic and cross-border e-commerce in Spain: A gravitational model approach
This paper presents econometric evidence on the determinants of domestic and cross-border e-commerce in Spain based on BBVA anonymised data. The paper applies the gravity model of trade to explain online credit card payment flows, using all private customer transactions of BBVA for Spain.
The changes in spending patterns that have come about in the past twenty years confirm that digital information and communication technology has now become an integral part of consumer behaviour. Irrespective of age, income, sex or any other demographic or socioeconomic characteristic, today’s consumers are highly connected.
In this issue we focus on: European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR); Tax challenges for the digital economy; The European Network and Information Security Directive (part 2 of 2); e-commerce in Spain: generational approach; Marketing …
In this issue we focus on: E-commerce in Spain; the EU General Data Protection Regulation; Turkish banks’ digitalisation; the blockchain technology; and Electronic money.
This paper aims to improve our understanding of the determinants of e-commerce and of its composition, and clarify the possible reasons conditioning its development in Spain. The internet is still not widely available in Spanish households, furthermore, just one in four people has recently bought online, whereas in the Euro…