This paper analyzes the effect of financial participation on consumer's financial vulnerability, which is pervasive in the developing world. The financial behavior of consumers (i.e. financial health) has a greater positive effect on financial vulnerability than the narrower concept of financial inclusion.
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Many individuals and households experience moments of financial difficulty, prompted either by a personal shock, such as losing a job, or an economy-wide shock, such as a recession. Financial resilience is key for consumer welfare and the formal financial system plays an important role.