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Human capital formation faced great challenges prior to the pandemic; conditions are likely to have worsened with COVID-19. It is necessary to prioritize and strengthen the educational system. Without investment in human capital, there can be no nearshoring in the medium and long term.

This Working Paper analyses σ−convergence and absolute β−convergence in human capital indicators in a sample of 140 countries from 1970 to 2020, and to what extent human capital may have contributed to the convergence in GDP per capita observed in recent years.

Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey (EPA), this Working Paper extends through 2019, the annual series of the educational level of the Spanish population and regions produced in de la Fuente and Doménech (2016) for the period 1960-201…

Research, development and innovation (R+D+I) are undoubtedly pending issues in Spain. Poor performance in this area has severe consequences for our economy. For example, the fact that there has been no growth in labor productivity in recent yea…

This report evaluates the state of R&D in Spain and anaylzes the factors that hinder innovation. The implementation of the necessary reforms is essential for Spain to achieve its R&D objectives and increase its potential growth.

This paper explores the relationship between human capital inequality and income inequality, using an updated data set on human capital inequality for 146 countries from 1950 to 2010 and a novel database on earnings inequality.

Recently, the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and the Fundación Santillana presented the “OECD Skills Strategy 2019” report, drafted under the supervision of Montserrat Gomendio, Head of the OECD's Centre for Skills.

It’s been some time since I last read a title of a study that I like and share so much: “Learning to make the promise of education come true.”

Most developing countries have made a great effort to eliminate illiteracy rates. As a result, the average human capital Gini coefficient dropped from 0.55 in 1960 to 0.28 in 2005.

La convergencia de España con las principales economías avanzadas requiere aumentar el empleo y la productividad. Las regulaciones del mercado de trabajo son importantes, pero también el tamaño de las empresas y sus determinantes, las regulacio…

This document is an update of WP 12/28 published in October 2012

We survey a number of papers that have focused on the construction of cross-country data sets on average years of schooling