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Based on the endogenous growth model of Lucas (1988 and 1990), in this Working Paper we propose a method to measure the total contribution of human capital to the variance of GDP per capita in a large sample of countries from 1960 to 2015.

There are 1.7 million formal companies in the country. Micro and SMEs represent 99.5% of formal companies, generate 79% of the country's employment, and contribute close to 40% of the annual GDP.

In Colombia there are 1.7 million formal companies. Micro and SMEs represent 99.5% of formal companies, generate 79% of the country's employment, and contribute about 40% to the annual GDP.

Human capital formation faced great challenges prior to the pandemic; conditions are likely to have worsened with COVID-19. It is necessary to prioritize and strengthen the educational system. Without investment in human capital, there can be n…

This Working Paper analyses σ−convergence and absolute β−convergence in human capital indicators in a sample of 140 countries from 1970 to 2020, and to what extent human capital may have contributed to the convergence in GDP per capita observed…

Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey (EPA), this Working Paper extends through 2019, the annual series of the educational level of the Spanish population and regions produced in de la Fuente and Doménech (2016) for the period 1960-2011.

Research, development and innovation (R+D+I) are undoubtedly pending issues in Spain. Poor performance in this area has severe consequences for our economy. For example, the fact that there has been no growth in labor productivity in recent years and the resulting impact on wages.

This report evaluates the state of R&D in Spain and anaylzes the factors that hinder innovation. The implementation of the necessary reforms is essential for Spain to achieve its R&D objectives and increase its potential growth.

This paper explores the relationship between human capital inequality and income inequality, using an updated data set on human capital inequality for 146 countries from 1950 to 2010 and a novel database on earnings inequality.

Recently, the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and the Fundación Santillana presented the “OECD Skills Strategy 2019” report, drafted under the supervision of Montserrat Gomendio, Head of the OECD's Centre for S…

It’s been some time since I last read a title of a study that I like and share so much: “Learning to make the promise of education come true.”

Most developing countries have made a great effort to eliminate illiteracy rates. As a result, the average human capital Gini coefficient dropped from 0.55 in 1960 to 0.28 in 2005.