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Spain faces two problems hindering its per capita income convergence toward the EU level: unemployment and low productivity growth.

Reducing the work week is laudable, but how we go about it is key to achieving the desired effects. Collective bargaining is the ideal instrument to adapt the needs of companies and workers to each business and sectoral reality, in an effective and flexible manner.

The Colombian economy is cycling towards recovery, with projections of moderate growth. Increasing investment and improving infrastructure are needed to accelerate the pace. Seizing local and external opportunities is crucial. Public-private co…

Since the end of 2019 through the first quarter of 2024, the Gross Value Added (GVA) of the services sector has increased by 6.3%, compared to 3.7% for the total economy. In addition, the number of hours worked increased by more than 2%, compar…

Colombia's economy grapples with recovery challenges. Proposing an infrastructure plan to link regions, cut logistic costs, and drive housing, business hubs, and energy projects. Public-private collaboration is paramount.

In this edition of the QLMO, we analyze the labor market situation with data available up to the first quarter of 2024. We review the trends of the main indicators, examine the differences between the Labor Force Survey and administrative records, and highlight Spain's productivity deficit.

Evidence shows that permanent improvements in productivity lead to a gradual reduction in hours worked per employee. In contrast, reversing this order of causality hinders employment growth.

If there is one thing we have learned over the past two centuries of ups and downs, it is that the key to overcoming turbulent times is strong and shared economic growth.

This Working Paper contributes to the existing literature by examining the welfare implications of degrowth. We use an environmental Dynamic General Equilibrium (eDGE) model, calibrated to replicate the most relevant macroeconomic and environme…

This Observatory evaluates the factors that explain the cyclical behavior of GDP in Spain, full-time equivalent employment and productivity up to 4Q2023.

Large Language Models have revolutionized the Artificial Intelligence (AI) landscape since they were first developed in 2017 when a group of Google researchers wrote their now famous "Attention is all you need".

The growth of the Colombian economy was exceptionally low in 2023, registering at 0.6%. The primary culprit for this outcome was the steep decline in investment. Concerns extend beyond the short term, as the low investment rates will constrain the future productive capacity of the economy and curtail its competitiveness.