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This Working Paper analyzes the changes in the definitive financing of the autonomous communities under the common system from 2002 to 2021.

The crises of the last fifteen years have resulted in a sharp increase in regional debt, which has also conditioned its structure. The FLA provided access to financing at a time when the markets were closed on very favourable terms, and has become the main financing instrument for Regional Governments.

Cantabria's economy will grow by 2.0% in 2023, and will accelerate to 2.5% in 2024. This will allow a return to the pre-pandemic GDP level this year.

According to BBVA card spending data, the summer months have been characterized by a slight improvement in tourist spending compared to the beginning of the year, driven by the good behavior of consumption by Spaniards and despite the sluggishn…

Asturias' GDP could grow by 2.1% and in 2023 recover the pre-pandemic level. By 2024, the increase in activity will accelerate to 2.5%, and during that year it is expected to be able to recover GDP per capita. If these forecasts are met, Asturi…

The central government has subsidized the interest payable by the regional governments by guaranteeing them interest rates below what they would have paid had they borrowed on the market. The higher the debt incurred, the larger the transfer from central to regional government.

The national unemployment rate for July was 9.6%, 1.4 percentagepoints lower than last year's July rate (11.0%), being the lowest rate for themonth of July since 2015. On the margin, compared to June of this year, theunemployment rate was down 0.3 percentage points.

Book edited by BBVA Research, BBVA Foundation and the National Population Council (CONAPO) made up of 10 chapters that addresses the main statistics on the multiple migratory flows and human mobility, and remittances at a global level, with an …

In a context where domestic demand has been weakening due to the effects of inflation and rising interest rates, exports have taken over as the driving force behind economic growth, warranting an upward revision of Spain's GDP growth to 2.4% in…

Catalonia's GDP to grow by 2.6% in 2023 and 2.0% in 2024. Catalonia will return to the pre-pandemic level of GDP in 2023, and throughout 2024 it could regain that of GDP per capita. Almost 180,000 new jobs could be created between 2023 and 2024…

Upward revision of the Spanish economy in 2023 to 2.4%, to be led by the Balearic Islands, Canary Islands and Madrid. But growth in 2024 is revised by 0.5 pp (to 2.1%), due to the slowdown in the tourism industry, the rise in interest rates, and the delay in the impact of the NGEU funds.

During the first four months of the year, total tourist spending (domestic and foreign) was 39pp above that observed during the same period of 2019 (5pp more than in the previous four-month period), according to spending data with BBVA credit card.