Published on Wednesday, January 18, 2023 | Updated on Wednesday, January 18, 2023

Spain | Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An analysis by region

This presentation analyzes the evolution of GHG emissions in Spain and its main determinants. The Spanish Regions that contribute the most to national activity do not always generate the most emissions. Sectoral structure and mix and balance of energy, largely explain the differences between regions.

Key points

  • Key points:
  • In Spain, Greenhouse Gas emissions’s intensity has been falling almost continuously until the outbreak of the pandemic, even in the upward trend of the Spanish economy. A greater weight of renewables in the energy mix as well as the gains in energy efficiency largely explain the reduction in GHG emissions’ intensity.
  • The sectors that generate the most emissions do not necessarily produce the most goods and services. Manufacturing industry, agriculture, energy and transport generate more than 90% of the total GHG emissions (excluding households) in Spain, while their contribution to the Gross Value Added is barely 25%.
  • The Regions with the highest share in activity do not necessarily generate the most GHG emissions. Madrid's share in total emissions is lower than its contribution in GDP. This is mainly due to an energy consumption higher than that produced in the region as well as a sectoral structure concentrated in services. Asturias, on the other hand, has a higher share in total emissions than in GDP.
  • The higher per capita income, the lower GHG emissions intensity? It will depend on the threshold, on the production structure and on the energy balance of each region or country. Emissions intensity’s heterogeneity is high, even in geographies with similar income.
  • By Region, GHG emissions adjusted by national sectoral intensities ("Synthetic") are in line with those published by MITECO. The differences between both depend not only on the relative efficiency of each region, but also on its mix and balance of energy and on the composition effects given the low desegregation considered by sector.

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